Makaev Artem, Birkina Anna, Gromina Zlata, Dzholdosheva Aigul
MODERNIZATION OF PARTY SYSTEMS OF THE XX CENTURY IN THE CONTEXT OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF THE POLITICAL SPHERE
Abstract. The article analyzes the process of global modernization of party systems in the twentieth century, examines the factors that contributed to the formation of classical mass-type political parties, as well as the conditions under which the prerequisites for the transition to freer forms of party representation were formed: inclusive (volksparteien) and cartel parties. The context of the institutional transformation of party systems is considered, represented by the large-scale commercialization of the political sphere, the emergence and spread of the concept of politics as an electoral market in which there is an exchange between the votes of voters and the projected results of the activities of candidates for elected office. Methodology. The research is based on the principles of general scientific methodology. The work contains the author’s systematization of current theoretical approaches to the process of transformation of political parties and the analysis of a number of problematic complexes of party science in relation to aspects of the internal policy of the state. Results. The analysis of three waves of modernization of the program ideologies of political parties is carried out. The emphasis placed on the political conjuncture helps cartel parties to cope with some local challenges. Conclusions. One of the key development trends in the coming years is the return of ideologically minded political parties, competition with which is becoming a new challenge for cartel-type parties.
Keywords: modernization, party system, commercialization, party science, party representation, mass parties, cartel parties, catch–all parties.
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